WORLD VACCINE SUMMIT 2022
On behalf of Global Summit on Vaccines and Immunology we are delighted to welcome you to join the WORLD VACCINE SUMMIT 2022 scheduled on April 18-19, 2022 Madrid, Spain which is an exceptional gathering for the worldwide prominent scholastics in the field of Vaccines and Immunology where Directors, Scientists, Professors, Research scholars, Postdocs, Academic Staff are about to share their research work and acquiesce new emerging technological trends in the conference areas.
WORLD VACCINE SUMMIT 2022 is an International platform to adverse and study about the early detection as well as treatment care based on Professional standards, and intense research to Share complete Knowledge. The conference contains significant international experts in Doctors, hospitals specialists, research scholars and general practitioners, Student Delegates and Exhibitors form all over the world to our webinar with the theme “Protect your world-get vaccinated”. WORLD VACCINE SUMMIT 2022 will be featuring oral presentations, poster presentations, keynote talks, workshops and many more.
The conference will focus on Human Vaccines Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases,Covid-19 Vaccines, HIV/AIDS Vaccines, Vaccines against Viral and Bacterial Diseases, Cancer Vaccines, Vaccine Safety and Efficacy, Influenza vaccines, New Trends in Vaccines Development, Vaccines Research and Clinical Trails, Pregnancy Childhood Vaccines, Immunization Safety and Vaccination Schedule, Side-effects of Antibiotics & Vaccines, Veterinary Vaccines and Animal Health.
Scope and Importance:
WORLD VACCINE SUMMIT 2022 aims to order driving scholastic researchers, specialists and exploration researchers to trade and share their encounters and examination results on all parts of VACCINES AND IMMUNOLOGY. It additionally presents a top-quality interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners and educators to give and speak the latest innovations, trends, and issues additionally as realistic demanding situations encountered and solutions adopted within the fields of VACCINES AND IMMUNOLOGY.
Who can attend?
WORLD VACCINE SUMMIT 2022 brings together individuals who have an interest in different fields of VACCINES AND IMMUNOLOGY. Doctor’s, Professors, Cancer Researchers, VACCINE Researchers, Training Institutes, Public health, Vaccine and Immunology from practice. It is a forum to explore problems with mutual concern also as exchange knowledge, share evidence, ideas, and generate solutions
Why to attend?
WORLD VACCINE SUMMIT 2022 is an opportunity to meet others within specialty to network and to learn the latest clinical information. It is an opportunity to get knowledge From Experience Doctor’s Professors, Scientist. I’ve always embraced the opportunity to attend Vaccine and Immunology conferences and have made a point to encourage others to attend whenever the opportunity arises.
They are interactive offerings that offer case-primarily based totally presentations, on line reviews, and stay conversations with key opinion leaders that consist of beneficial recommendation in your normal scientific practice.
Experts and Specialists in the field of Vaccines and Immunology Human Vaccines Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases,Covid-19 Vaccines, HIV/AIDS Vaccines, Vaccines against Viral and Bacterial Diseases, Cancer Vaccines, Vaccine Safety and Efficacy, Influenza vaccines, New Trends in Vaccines Development, Vaccines Research and Clinical Trails, Pregnancy Childhood Vaccines, Immunization Safety and Vaccination Schedule, Side-effects of Antibiotics & Vaccines, Veterinary Vaccines and Animal Health, Young and brilliant researchers, business delegates | Vaccine Industries | Directors of Association and Societies
A Vaccine is an inactivated form of bacteria or virus that is injected into the body to simulate an actual infection. Because the injected microorganisms are 'dead,' they don't cause a person to become sick. Instead, vaccines stimulate an immune response by the body that will fight off that type of illness. It covers infectious disease targets and non-infectious disease targets. To generate vaccine-mediated protection is a complex challenge. Currently available vaccines have largely been developed empirically, with little or no understanding on how they activate the immune system. Their early protective efficacy is primarily conferred by the induction of antigen-specific antibodies. However, there is more to antibody-mediated protection than the peak of vaccine-induced antibody titers.
To generate vaccine-mediated protection is a complex challenge. Currently available vaccines have largely been developed empirically, with little or no understanding on how they activate the immune system. Their early protective efficacy is primarily conferred by the induction of antigen-specific antibodies. However, there is more to antibody-mediated protection than the peak of vaccine-induced antibody titers.
- Influenza Vaccines
- Chickenpox Vaccine
- Cholera Vaccine
- Measles Vaccines
- Rotavirus Vaccine
- Smallpox Vaccine
- Meningococcal /Menactra Vaccines
- Pneumonia Vaccines
- Rubella Vaccine
- OPV Vaccine
- Bordetella Vaccine
Track 2. COVID-19 Vaccines.
The Roadmap for Prioritizing Population Groups for Vaccines against COVID-19, which recommends public health strategies and target priority groups for different levels of vaccine availability and epidemiologic settings.
- The SAGE Roadmap has now been updated and offers recommendations on how vaccines should be prioritized in countries with limited supply for maximum public health impact, taking into account the most recent evidence on COVID-19 vaccines and on the ongoing supply constraint issues faced by the COVAX Facility. This update reflects data that has become available from clinical vaccine studies, as well as lessons learned from the early implementation of programme
- The recommendations include expanding the groups included in Stage II of the prioritization roadmap to include pregnant women and children with underlying health conditions, and updates regarding clinical trials for lactating women.
The framework advises that as safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines are authorized for use, all countries should receive doses in proportion to their population size to immunize the highest-priority groups. In the second phase, vaccines would continue to be deployed to all countries so that additional populations can be covered according to national priorities.
COVAX has allocated more than 170 million vaccines across 138 countries according to a framework developed by an expert group that includes ethicists, scientists, and other public health specialists
COVID-19 vaccines are being rolled out in two phases. In the first phase, they have been allocated proportionally to the population size to all participating countries at the same time, so as to protect those people at greatest risk of infection and of severe disease. In phase II, vaccine will be allocated to target countries with higher threat and vulnerability.
There are now several vaccines that are in use. The first mass vaccination programme started in early December 2020 and the number of vaccination doses administered is updated on a daily basis here. Different vaccines (across 4 platforms) have been administered.
- BNT162b2/COMIRNATY Tozinameran (INN)-BioNTech Manufacturing GmbH
- AZD1222 Vaxzevria --AstraZeneca, AB
- Covishield (ChAdOx1_nCoV-19)-- Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd
- Ad26.COV2.S Janssen–Cilag International NV
- mRNA-1273 – Moderna
- SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell), Inactivated (lnCoV)-- Beijing Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd. (BIBP)
- COVID-19 Vaccine (Vero Cell), --Inactivated/ CoronavacTM Sinovac Life Sciences Co., Ltd
- Sputnik V --The Gamleya National Center
- SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine, Inactivated (Vero Cell)/ COVAXIN -- Bharat Biotech, India
- Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell) -- Sinopharm / WIBP2
- Ad5-nCoV -- CanSinBIO
- NVX-CoV2373/Covovax -- Novavax
- CoV2 preS dTM-AS03 vaccine --Sanofi
- Zorecimeran (INN) concentrate and solvent for dispersion for injection; Company code: CVnCoV/CV07050101 --- CUREVA
- Recombinant Novel Coronavirus Vaccine （CHO Cell) --- Zhifei Longcom, China
- EpiVacCorona .--- Vector State Research Centre of Virology and Biotechnology
- SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine, Inactivated (Vero Cell) ---IMBCAMS, China
- Soberana 01, Soberana 02 Soberana Plus Abdala ---BioCubaFarma – Cuba
Track 3. HIV/AIDS Vaccines
Today, more people living with HIV than ever before have access to life-saving treatment with HIV medicines (called antiretroviral therapy or ART), which is good for their health. When people living with HIV achieve and maintain viral suppression by taking HIV medication daily as prescribed, they can stay healthy and have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their partners. In addition, others who are at high risk for HIV infection may have access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), or ART being used to prevent HIV. Yet, unfortunately, in 2018, 37,968 people were diagnosed with HIV infection in the United States, and in 2019, approximately 1.7 million people newly acquired HIV worldwide. To control and ultimately end HIV globally, we need a powerful array of HIV prevention tools that are widely accessible to all who would benefit from them.
Vaccines historically have been the most effective means to prevent and even eradicate infectious diseases. They safely and cost-effectively prevent illness, disability, and death. Like smallpox and polio vaccines, a preventive HIV vaccine could help save millions of lives.
Developing safe, effective, and affordable vaccines that can prevent HIV infection in uninfected people is the NIH’s highest HIV research priority given its game-changing potential for controlling and ultimately ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
The long-term goal is to develop a safe and effective vaccine that protects people worldwide from acquiring HIV. However, even if a vaccine only protects some people who get vaccinated, or even if it provides less than total protection by reducing the risk of infection, it could still have a major impact on the rates of transmission and help control the pandemic, particularly for populations at high risk of getting HIV. A partially effective vaccine could decrease the number of people who get infected with HIV, further reducing the number of people who can pass the virus on to others. By substantially reducing the number of new infections, we can stop the epidemic.
Vaccines are one of the miracles of modern medicine. Without vaccines, the population—particularly children—would be troubled with multitudinous infectious diseases such as diphtheria, scarlet fever, whooping cough, and measles, just to name a few. Vaccines are available against both viral and bacterial infections; they have saved millions of lives and continue to do so. The World Health Organization hopes to have vaccinated all children under a year old against most infectious diseases by 2020. The history of the public’s acceptance of vaccines has been a stormy one. Anti-vaccination movements have been active since the creation or development of the smallpox vaccine in the eighteenth century and in government-mandated vaccination until the present. An example of this is the fabricated information spread about the relationship between measles vaccine and autism. A successful polio vaccine was developed in the 1950s thanks to the research of three groups, led by Koprowski, Salk and Sabin, although each of these vaccines has its advantages and disadvantages. An oral vaccine has the advantage of ease of administration and a herd effect. Polio vaccine workers have become targets of extremists in Nigeria and Pakistan. Recently, recombinant DNA technology, was used to develop new vaccines in order to avoid the side effects, since live virus is not involved. The future may see the production of vaccines in edible plants, allowing for cheap production and ease in worldwide distribution. Some of the diseases are
- Diphtheria ---1920s---Caused by corynebacterium diphtheria
- Measles ---- 1963 Edmonston B strain, attenuated---Caused by paramyxovirus; highly lethal
- Mumps --- First strain developed in 1949. Today at least 10 strains of vaccine---Predominantly childhood disease
- Polio ---1950–1956---Attenuated vaccines developed by Sabin and Koprowski, “killed” vaccine by Salk
- Yellow fever ---1936, developed by Theiler,--- Increase in incidence despite vaccine
- Smallpox ---1796 (vaccinia)--- Eradicated in 1977
- Hepatitis A ---1993–1996
- Hepatitis B ---1981---1st recombinant vaccine 600,000 deaths per year
- Papilloma ---2006–2007---274,000 deaths due to cervical cancer
- Rabies --- 1885 (Pasteur attenuated vaccine), 1967 killed vaccine: 1984 recombinant vaccine
- Varicella (Chickenpox) ---1988 in Japan and Korea, 1995 in USA---Mild disease
- Zoster (Shingles) --- 2006---For people over 60 years of age
- Influenza --- 1945, first given to army personnel in USA---Vaccine changes annually. Tripartite, containing three different viruses
- Rubella --- 1969---Given as part of MMR vaccine
- Rotavirus --- 2006---Causes severe diarrhea in children
Cancer vaccines are a form of immunotherapy that can help educate the immune system about what cancer cells “look like” so that it can recognize and eliminate them.
Vaccines have proven effective in preventing diseases caused by viruses and bacteria. Since the first vaccine was developed more than 200 years ago, they have prevented some of the twentieth century’s deadliest diseases and have helped save hundreds of millions of lives globally.
In the case of diseases caused by viruses (e.g., measles, polio, and smallpox) and bacteria (e.g., diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculosis), vaccines work by exposing people to a weakened or inactivated version of the threat. This enables their immune system to identify these threats according to their specific markers—known as “antigens”—and mount a response against them. These vaccines typically work best in the preventive setting, when an individual is given the vaccine before being infected by the bacteria or virus.
In the case of cancer, however, the situation is more complicated for several reasons (more below) and this has made it more difficult to develop vaccines to either prevent or treat cancer. In particular, unlike bacteria and viruses, which appear foreign to our immune system, cancer cells more closely resemble our normal, healthy cells. Furthermore, each individual’s tumor is in some sense unique and has its own distinguishing antigens. As a result, more sophisticated approaches are necessary to develop effective cancer vaccines.
·Preventive Cancer Vaccines
·Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines
·Personalized Neoantigen Vaccines
Preventive Cancer Vaccines
Viral infections are responsible for the development of several cancers and preventive vaccines play an important role in reducing risk. For instance, cervical cancer and head and neck cancer can be caused by human papilloma virus, or HPV, whereas liver cancer can be caused by hepatitis B virus or HBV. Several vaccines have been developed that can prevent HBV and HPV infection and, as a result, protect against the formation of HBV- and HPV-related cancers.
Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines
Each individual’s tumor is in some sense unique and has its own distinguishing antigens. As a result, more sophisticated cancer vaccine approaches are necessary.
Fortunately, doctors can now identify targets on patients’ tumors that can help distinguish cancer cells from their normal cells. Sometimes these targets are normal proteins that are produced at abnormally high levels by cancer cells, such as prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), which is often overexpressed by prostate cancer cells. Taking advantage of that insight, the sipuleucel-T vaccine was developed and received FDA approval in 2010 for the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer. Additionally, virus-derived proteins expressed by virus-infected cancer cells offer another promising source of markers that can be targeted through vaccines.
Another exception is Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, or BCG, a tuberculosis vaccine that acts as a general immune stimulant. In 1990, BCG became the first immunotherapy of any type to be approved by the FDA and is still used for the treatment of early-stage bladder cancer
Personalized Neoantigen Vaccines
In contrast to normal-yet-overexpressed proteins like PAP, tumors also display unique targets that arise as a result of mutations. These are referred to as neoantigens (“new antigens”) and they are expressed exclusively by tumor cells and not by any of a patient’s healthy cells. With neoantigen vaccines, therefore, it is conceivable that immune responses could be directed precisely against patients’ tumor cells while sparing their healthy cells from immune attack, thus possibly preventing side effects.
In addition to the previously mentioned vaccines, several types of neoantigen vaccines are currently being evaluated, both alone and in combination with other treatments, in a variety of cancer types in clinical trials.
Track 5. Vaccine safety and efficacy
For the past two centuries, vaccines have provided a safe and effective means of preventing a number of infectious diseases. Although the safety of some vaccines has been questioned in recent years, the currently available vaccines are more than a millionfold safer than the diseases they are designed to prevent. Vaccines, however, should always be used in conjunction with other public health interventions. One important intervention is education because the general public can be led to believe that vaccines are unsafe and not needed by misinformation readily available electronically and in print. Not only are some vaccines available via injection but other vaccines are also given orally or intranasally. New vaccines are being studied for topical and intravaginal use. In addition, new systems are being developed for more efficient production of vaccines, especially for influenza. Vaccines are currently available for only a limited number of viral and bacterial diseases. In the future, it is anticipated that safe and effective vaccines will be developed against a number of other viral and bacterial infections as well as fungal and protozoan diseases
Track 6. Influenza vaccines
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots, are vaccines that protect against infection by influenza viruses. New versions of the vaccines are developed twice a year, as the influenza virus rapidly changes while their effectiveness varies from year to year, most provide modest to high protection against influenza. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that vaccination against influenza reduces sickness, medical visits, hospitalizations, and deaths Immunized workers who do catch the flu return to work half a day sooner on average. Vaccine effectiveness in those over 65 years old remains uncertain due to a lack of high-quality research Vaccinating children may protect those around them.
Vaccination against influenza began in the 1930s, with large-scale availability in the United States beginning in 1945. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend yearly vaccination for nearly all people over the age of six months, especially those at high risk The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) also recommends yearly vaccination of high risk groups.These groups include pregnant women, the elderly, children between six months and five years of age, and those with certain health problems.
Track 7. New Trends in Vaccines Development
Vaccine implementation varies between countries, but, generally, those with similar levels of income have comparable immunization systems. One exception is Japan. Japan has a level of wealth similar to countries in Western Europe, Australia and the US, but has an immunization program that is considerably less progressive. Most industrialized countries strongly value immunization as a cost-effective means to prevent disease and save on treatment costs, and as a means to preserve economic development. Immunization is also valued by some industrialized countries as an asset against bioterrorism. Like many other complex and capital-intensive industries, the vaccine industry in highly consolidated. The vaccine market is dominated by a few large vaccine suppliers in industrialized countries. The costs associated with developing new vaccines require that vaccines be sold on the global market in order to be able to recoup R&D investments. Furthermore, almost all countries import at least some vaccines because not all national suppliers produce every antigen available. Vaccine research and development has largely been restricted to the few vaccine-producing countries. More than two thirds of new vaccines developed in the past 25 years have been developed in the US52.
Clinical research is medical research involving people. There are two types, observational studies and clinical trials.
Observational studies observe people in normal settings. Researchers gather information, group volunteers according to broad characteristics, and compare changes over time. For example, researchers may collect data through medical exams, tests, or questionnaires about a group of older adults over time to learn more about the effects of different lifestyles on cognitive health. These studies may help identify new possibilities for clinical trials.
Why do clinical trials infographic icon?
Clinical trials are research studies performed in people that are aimed at evaluating a medical, surgical, or behavioral intervention. They are the primary way that researchers find out if a new treatment, like a new drug or diet or medical device (for example, a pacemaker) is safe and effective in people. Often a clinical trial is used to learn if a new treatment is more effective and/or has less harmful side effects than the standard treatment.
Other clinical trials test ways to find a disease early, sometimes before there are symptoms. Still others test ways to prevent a health problem. A clinical trial may also look at how to make life better for people living with a life-threatening disease or a chronic health problem. Clinical trials sometimes study the role of caregivers or support groups.
Before the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves a clinical trial to begin, scientists perform laboratory tests and studies in animals to test a potential therapy’s safety and efficacy. If these studies show favorable results, the FDA gives approval for the intervention to be tested in humans.
What are the four phases of clinical trials?
Clinical trials advance through four phases to test a treatment, find the appropriate dosage, and look for side effects. If, after the first three phases, researchers find a drug or other intervention to be safe and effective, the FDA approves it for clinical use and continues to monitor its effects.
Clinical trials of drugs are usually described based on their phase. The FDA typically requires Phase I, II, and III trials to be conducted to determine if the drug can be approved for use.
A Phase I trial tests an experimental treatment on a small group of often healthy people (20 to 80) to judge its safety and side effects and to find the correct drug dosage.
A Phase II trial uses more people (100 to 300). While the emphasis in Phase I is on safety, the emphasis in Phase II is on effectiveness. This phase aims to obtain preliminary data on whether the drug works in people who have a certain disease or condition. These trials also continue to study safety, including short-term side effects. This phase can last several years.
A Phase III trial gathers more information about safety and effectiveness, studying different populations and different dosages, using the drug in combination with other drugs. The number of subjects usually ranges from several hundred to about 3,000 people. If the FDA agrees that the trial results are positive, it will approve the experimental drug or device.
A Phase IV trial for drugs or devices takes place after the FDA approves their use. A device or drug's effectiveness and safety are monitored in large, diverse populations. Sometimes, the side effects of a drug may not become clear until more people have taken it over a longer period of time.
Track 9. Pregnancy Childhood Vaccines
Influenza (Flu) Vaccine
The flu season is here. If you are pregnant, getting the flu can cause serious problems for you. Even if you are healthy, changes in your immune, heart, and lung functions during pregnancy make you more likely to become very sick from the flu. Pregnant people who get the flu are at higher risk of being hospitalized, and even dying, than non-pregnant people.
If you are pregnant and become very sick from the flu, it can also be very dangerous to your baby. It increases the chance for complications such as premature labor and delivery, and birth defects.
The CDC and pregnancy experts agree that the best way to protect both yourself and your baby from the flu and its serious complications is to get the flu shot – during any trimester. When you get your flu shot during pregnancy, your body starts to make antibodies that help protect you against the flu. Some of these antibodies are also passed on to your developing baby to help protect them from flu for several months. This is very important since they can’t start getting their own flu vaccine until they are 6 months old.
The flu vaccine recommendation is strongly supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG); the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM); the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP); and the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN).
- Getting a flu shot reduces a pregnant woman’s risk of being hospitalized with flu by an average of 40%.
- Getting a flu shot reduces a pregnant woman’s risk of flu-related acute respiratory infection by up to one-half.
- Getting a flu shot during pregnancy reduces the risk of pregnancy loss and reduced birth weight.
- Getting a flu shot during pregnancy lowers the baby’s risk (in babies less than 6 months old) of flu-related hospitalization by an average of 72%.
- Getting a flu shot during pregnancy helps protect the baby from flu illness for the first several months after birth, when they are too young to get their own flu vaccine.
The timing of flu seasons vary from season to season, but the CDC recommends getting vaccinated by the end of October, if possible. Getting your vaccine at the beginning of the flu season helps to protect you and your baby before flu begins spreading in your community. It takes approximately 2 weeks after vaccination for protection to start.
If you missed getting the flu shot while you were pregnant, you should get it before leaving the hospital to help protect yourself from getting sick with flu and to pass some protection to your baby if you are breastfeeding. However, you won’t get protective antibodies right away if you wait to get vaccinated because it takes about 2 weeks after vaccination before your body develops antibodies against flu.
To help provide your baby with additional protection against flu, ask your friends, family members (children, teens and adults), and other caregivers to make sure they get their flu vaccination at least two weeks before meeting your new baby.
Experts believe flu and COVID-19 will both be spreading this fall and winter. You can get both vaccines at the same time. Learn more about this flu season.
Flu Shot Safety
The flu shot is safe – during any trimester – for both you and your baby. You cannot get the flu from the flu shot. Flu shots have been safely given to millions of pregnant women over many years.
It is also safe for you to get the flu vaccine while breastfeeding. Getting vaccinated reduces your risk of getting sick and passing the flu to your baby. Breastfeeding also helps to protect your baby because breast milk passes your antibodies to your baby, and these antibodies help your infant fight off infection.
If you are Pregnant and Have Flu Symptoms
If you get flu symptoms while pregnant (even if you had a flu shot), call your healthcare provider right away. They might prescribe you antivirals to help treat your illness and lessen the chance that you get severe complications. Antiviral medications work best when taken within 48 hours of the start of flu symptoms.
Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Vaccine
Whooping cough (also known as pertussis) is a very contagious disease that still occurs very often in the United States. Whooping cough can cause serious illness in people of all ages, but it is particularly dangerous for babies.
About 7 in 10 deaths from whooping cough are among babies younger than 2 months old. These babies are too young to be protected by their own vaccinations.
About half of babies younger than one-year old who have whooping cough end up in the hospital. The younger the baby is when they get whooping cough, the more likely they will need to be treated in a hospital.
Whooping cough can cause uncontrollable, violent coughing that often makes it hard to breathe. After coughing, a person with whooping cough often needs to take deep breaths, which results in a “whooping” sound. Sometimes it is hard to know if your child has whooping cough because some babies with the disease don’t cough at all. Instead, they stop breathing and turn blue. Hear how whooping cough sounds in a child.
To best protect both you and your baby from whooping cough, the CDC recommends that you receive a Tdap vaccine during your 27th through 36th week (in the 3rd trimester) of each pregnancy, preferably during the earlier part of this time period. If you are unable to get the Tdap vaccination while pregnant, get it immediately after giving birth. Getting the Tdap shot will help protect you from getting sick and you can pass some antibodies against whooping cough to your baby if you are breastfeeding. However, you will not get protective antibodies immediately if you wait to get vaccinated until after your baby is born. This is because it takes about 2 weeks after getting the Tdap vaccine before your body develops antibodies.
People with whooping cough usually spread the disease by coughing or sneezing. Parents, older siblings, and other family members/caregivers can give whooping cough to babies without even knowing that they have the disease.
To help provide your baby with additional protection against whooping cough, ask your friends, family members (children, teens and adults), and caregivers to make sure they are up to date on their whooping cough vaccination (DTaP for children; Tdap for preteens, teens and adults), at least two weeks before meeting your new baby.
Tdap Vaccine Safety
The Tdap vaccine is safe for both you and your baby. You cannot get whooping cough (pertussis) from the Tdap shot.
See the research that has been done to make sure the Tdap vaccine during pregnancy is safe and effective for women and their babies.
Watch this real-life story told by a mom who lost her healthy baby girl Callie to whooping cough. We are forever grateful to Katie for sharing her stories and advocating for Tdap vaccination during pregnancy, which was not yet available to her at the time of her loss.
Getting flu and Tdap vaccines during your pregnancy is very important and will provide your baby with early protection against flu and whooping cough. However, the antibodies you pass to your baby will only give them short-term protection. That’s why it is also very important for your baby to get their own vaccinations on time.
Pregnant and recently pregnant people – including those who are breastfeeding – have a higher risk for more severe illness from COVID-19 than nonpregnant people. Based on the latest data, the CDC and other pregnancy experts STRONGLY RECOMMEND pregnant, recently pregnant and breastfeeding individuals get vaccinated against COVID-19. (Experts agree that the benefits of vaccination while pregnant outweigh the risks.)
They also recommend COVID-19 vaccination to anyone who is lactating or trying to become pregnant. There is no evidence showing that COVID-19 vaccines cause females or males to become infertile.
Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism or virus in a weakened, live or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. In stimulating the body's adaptive immunity, they help prevent sickness from an infectious disease. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. Herd immunity protects those who may be immunocompromised and cannot get a vaccine because even a weakened version would harm them. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio and tetanus from much of the world. However, some diseases, such as measles outbreaks in America, have seen rising cases due to relatively low vaccination rates in the 2010s – attributed, in part, to vaccine hesitancy.
The first disease people tried to prevent by inoculation was most likely smallpox, with the first recorded use of occurring in the 16th century in China. It was also the first disease for which a vaccine was produced although at least six people had used the same principles years earlier; the smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 by English physician Edward Jenner. He was the first to publish evidence that it was effective and to provide advice on its production. Louis Pasteur furthered the concept through his work in microbiology. The immunization was called vaccination because it was derived from a virus affecting cows (Latin: vacca 'cow'). Smallpox was a contagious and deadly disease, causing the deaths of 20–60% of infected adults and over 80% of infected children. When smallpox was finally eradicated in 1979, it had already killed an estimated 300–500 million people in the 20th century
Track 11. Side-effects of Antibiotics & Vaccines
Vaccines impact antibiotic-resistant infections in two ways: through a direct reduction in the organisms and strains carrying resistant genes that are specifically targeted by the vaccine and also via a secondary effect through a reduction in febrile illnesses that often lead to the use of antibiotics. We review here the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant disease and antibiotic usage as an example of the direct effect of vaccines on antibiotic resistance and the impact of influenza vaccination on antibiotic usage as an example of a secondary effect. A prelicensure study of a PCV in Africa demonstrated 67% fewer penicillin-resistant invasive disease episodes in the PCV group compared with controls. Similar studies in the United States and Europe demonstrated reductions in antibiotic use consistent with the vaccines' impact on the risk of otitis media infections in children. Post licensure reductions in the circulation of antibiotic-resistant strains targeted by the vaccines have been dramatic, with virtual elimination of these strains in children following vaccine introduction. In terms of a secondary effect, following influenza vaccination reductions of 13-50% have been observed in the use of antibiotics by individuals receiving influenza vaccine compared with controls. With the demonstrated effectiveness of vaccination programs in impacting the risk of antibiotic-resistant infections and the increasing threat to public health that these infections represent, more attention needs to be given to development and utilization of vaccines to address antibiotic resistance.
Track 12. Veterinary Vaccines and Animal Health
Today, veterinary associations recommend vaccination for animals, especially domesticated animals like dogs and cats that are in constant contact with humans. This is because some diseases, when passed on to humans, can be quite deadly. For example, rabies is 100% fatal if the person who receives a bite from a rabid animal is not given the rabies vaccine as soon as possible. While rare in the United States, rabies kills tens of thousands of people around the world. In India alone, the number of people bitten by dogs each year is estimated to be in the millions, and the number of people dying from rabies is estimated to be around 20,000.
The concept of One Health (animal health has impacts to human health, and vice versa) is something that is being included in more and more public health and veterinary health policies, including vaccination. Unfortunately, just like with human vaccines, animal vaccines are being refused by pet owners more and more. In the United Kingdom, about 25% of dogs and 35% of cats are reported by their owners as not vaccinated or under-vaccinated. Although rabies is eliminated in the UK, other vaccine-preventable diseases in animals are still circulating there.
Time will tell if diseases that can threaten the lives of pets and other animals are allowed to return like measles in humans has. Allowing vaccine-preventable diseases to decimate food animals like pork, chickens and beef would not only be a severe hit to the economy. It would threaten food security for people all around the world as these animals are a source of protein in the diets of many and a source of income for those who raise them and take them to market
Track 13. Advances in Immunology Tests
Immunology is one of the most recent subjects to have emerged as a separate discipline in biomedical science. Therefore, many clinicians currently practicing will have received little or no basic or clinical training in this subject, while those who have will find that much has changed in the past five to 10 years. Access to this important aspect of medicine is hampered by the profligate use of acronyms and jargon, but some attempt has been made to bring order where chaos threatened. The CD (cluster of differentiation) system defines cell surface molecules and now stretches to CD161. The interleukin system of cytokine nomenclature (now up to interleukin 18) has rid the literature of BCGF (B cell growth factor) and other acronyms. The genetic age has brought with it a new nomenclature for the HLA system, which may be difficult for clinicians who are required to adapt from the old one but will be beneficial to new generations of clinicians. The reality is that immunology can no longer be avoided. Its relevance spans from pregnancy to senescence and from vaccination to cancer, a fact recognized by the 10 Nobel prizes for medicine or physiology awarded for key immunological advances, most recently to Zinkernagel and Doherty for their work on the specificity of cell mediated immune defense.
- The cellular receptor used by HIV in fusing with target cells has been identified. The natural ligand for the receptor is capable of blocking HIV transmission in vitro, implying a new treatment strategy
- Motor vehicle pollution is implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Genetic studies link the disease with the gene for interleukin 4, a cytokine known to enhance IgE production
- The subdivision of CD4, and now CD8, T lymphocytes into groupings on the basis of cytokine production is promoting a greater understanding of the role of these cells in allergy, autoimmunity, and infection
- Immune regulation may depend heavily on killing activated T lymphocytes at the end of an inflammatory episode through the Fas and Fas ligand system. Transplant immunologists are looking to Fas as a way of protecting foreign grafts
- The crystallization of a complex of T cell receptor, peptide antigen, and molecule of the major histocompatibility complex has provided the best insight yet of how these molecules interact to achieve T cell activation
Clearly, if entry of the virus through chemokine receptors into CD4 T lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells is preventable, then people could be protected. Furthermore, prevention of viral spread in infected patients could maintain the virus at a low concentration, allowing the immune system to eliminate it.
Great strides have been made in developing a vaccine against HIV. Protective mucosal immunity has been elicited by targeted iliac lymph node immunization with a subunit simian immunodeficiency virus envelope and core vaccine in macaques.
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